In 2020, general secretary Xi Jinping solemnly declared that "China will enhance the state's independent contribution and take stronger policies and measures, and strive to achieve the peak value before 2030, and strive to achieve carbon neutralization by 2060." Carbon peak and carbon neutralization will be an important main line of China's green and low-carbon development in the next 40 years.
Practice at home and abroad shows that various green, energy-saving and low-carbon standards are an indispensable technical basis for achieving carbon peak and carbon neutralization. To this end, we will launch & ldquo; Carbon peak carbon neutralization and standard & rdquo; To continuously release the progress of relevant standards at home and abroad, so as to give better play to the supporting and leading role of standards in carbon peak and carbon neutralization.
Interpretation of carbon peak carbon neutralization and standard series
Greenhouse gases & nbsp& nbsp; Part 2: specifications and guidelines for the quantification and reporting of greenhouse gas emissions and removals at the project level (iso14064-2:2019) specifies the principles for the quantification, detection and reporting of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction or removal increase activities at the project level, the description of GHG projects and the requirements for GHG projects.
For the purpose of this standard, GHG projects refer to one or more activities that change the status of the baseline, resulting in an increase in GHG emission reduction or removal. Among them, GHG emission reduction is the reduction in GHG emissions of GHG projects compared with the baseline scenario. GHG removal is the recovery of GHG from the atmosphere through GHG sinks. The increase in GHG clearance is the increase in GHG clearance of GHG projects compared with the baseline scenario. A baseline scenario is a hypothetical reference scenario that best represents the most likely scenario in the absence of a proposed GHG project.
It should be noted that GHG emission reduction or removal increase is the effect of GHG projects on climate change mitigation, and GHG removal may not necessarily produce the effect of climate change mitigation.
The principles of the standard are divided into six, namely: relevance, integrity, consistency, accuracy and transparency Strong > the principle of relevance requires the selection of GHG sources, sinks, databases, data and methods that meet the needs of target users. The integrity principle requires that all relevant GHG emissions and removals be included. The principle of consistency requires a meaningful comparison of relevant GHG information. The principle of accuracy requires to minimize deviation and uncertainty. The principle of transparency requires the publication of fully applicable GHG information to enable target users to make decisions with reasonable confidence.
The standard details the information related to the GHG project, including the different requirements of the project in the two stages of planning and implementation. In the planning stage, the project proponent should:
Describe the project;
Identify and select project related GHG sources and sinks (SSR)；
Determine baseline scenarios, identify and select GHG sources and sinks related to baseline scenarios
Establish procedures for quantifying, monitoring and reporting GHG emissions, removals, emission reductions and enhanced removals.
In the implementation phase, the following relevant guidelines and procedures shall be selected and implemented:
Daily data quality management;
Quantification and reporting of project GHG emissions and removals and GHG baselines;
Quantification and reporting of GHG emission reduction and removal enhancements.
The technical requirements of key specifications in the standard include:
1）Requirements for project description
Description of project type is required; Project location, providing geographic and physical information that can uniquely identify and describe its scope; Conditions before project start-up; How the project will achieve GHG emission reduction and / or removal increase; Technology, products, services and expected activity level of the project; Accumulation of GHG emission reduction and removal increase that may be generated by the project; Identification of risks that may have a significant impact on emission reduction and removal increase; Responsibilities and contact information of the project proponent and the manager of the GHG scheme; Various information related to the project's eligibility to participate in the GHG programme, the quantification of emission reductions and increased removals; Overview of environmental impact assessment, etc.
2）Identification of project related sources, sinks, and libraries
The project proponent shall identify the GHG source, sink and bank according to the selected or established criteria and procedures. Identify the sources, sinks and libraries related to the project, so as to judge their categories, which will be the basis for the follow-up work procedures.
3）Determination of GHG baseline scenarios
The project proponent shall select or establish criteria and procedures to identify and evaluate applicable baseline scenarios. The following factors should be considered in this process: project description, including identified GHG sources, sinks and banks; Existing or optional project types, activities and technologies equivalent to project related products, services and activities in type and level; Availability, reliability and limitations of data; Other information related to current and future conditions, such as laws and regulations, technology, economy, social culture, environment, geography, specific places and time assumptions or forecasts.
To determine the GHG baseline scenario, it is necessary to analyze each stage and type of the project, and make assumptions or predictions on the current and future relevant information. The criteria and procedures for identifying and demonstrating baseline scenarios shall be explained and applied. And it needs to be confirmed that the GHG emission reduction or removal increase achieved by the project is achieved on the basis of the baseline scenario.
4）Identification of source, sink and database under baseline scenario
When identifying GHG sources, sinks and repositories under the baseline scenario, the project proponent shall focus on the criteria and procedures related to the project. If necessary, more criteria should be used for identification and interpretation.
5）Select relevant GHG sources, sinks and reservoirs for monitoring or estimating GHG emissions and removals
The project proponent shall select or establish criteria and procedures for regular monitoring or estimation of relevant GHG sources, sinks and reservoirs. For GHG sources, sinks and banks that do not implement regular monitoring, the reasons shall be explained.
6）Quantification of GHG emissions and / or removals
The project proponent shall select or establish criteria, procedures and / or methods to quantify GHG emissions and / or removals from selected GHG sources, sinks and banks. The project proponent shall quantify the emissions and removals of each GHG source, sink and reservoir related to the project, and quantify the emissions and removals of each GHG source, sink and reservoir under the baseline scenario.
When the data or information based on is highly uncertain, the project proponent shall choose assumptions or values that do not lead to overestimation of emission reduction and removal increase. The project proponent shall estimate the emissions and / or removals of sources, sinks and reservoirs related to the project and baseline scenarios but not regularly monitored. The project proponent shall evaluate the risk of adverse reaction of GHG emission reduction or removal increase, and pay attention to the persistence of emission reduction or removal increase.
The key technical basis for the application of this standard is to correctly quantify GHG emission and removal and eliminate the uncertainty and risk of data or information.
7）Quantification of GHG reduction and removal increases
During the implementation of GHG projects, the project proponent shall select or establish guidelines, procedures and / or methods to quantify the GHG emission reduction and removal increase of the project. The quantified results shall be the difference between GHG emissions and / or removals from sources, sinks and reservoirs under the project and baseline scenarios.
The project proponent shall quantify the emission reduction and removal increase of each GHG related to the source, sink and / or pool of the project and baseline scenarios respectively.
8）Data quality management
The project proponent shall establish and apply quality management procedures to manage the data and information related to the project and baseline scenarios, including the evaluation of uncertainty.
Data quality management can reduce the uncertainty of data and effectively ensure the accuracy of calculation results.
9）GHG project monitoring
The project proponent shall establish and maintain monitoring guidelines and procedures to obtain, record, summarize and analyze important data and information. The monitoring procedure shall include the following contents: monitoring purpose; Types and units of measurement of data and information in the report; Data sources; Monitoring methods, including estimation, simulation, measurement or calculation methods, etc; Monitoring time and cycle; Monitoring posts and responsibilities; GHG information management system, including data storage and storage location.
If measuring and monitoring equipment is used, ensure that the equipment is calibrated. During the implementation of GHG project, the project proponent shall regularly implement monitoring guidelines and procedures.
This standard also gives the purpose, method and content of relevant testing of GHG project.
10）GHG project documentation
The documentation of GHG project is to record whether and how the project meets the requirements of the standard, and also facilitate the follow-up review and verification.
11）GHG project validation and / or verification
If the project proponent requests validation or verification of the project, the GHG statement shall be submitted to the reviewer or verifier. The validation or verification shall comply with the principles and requirements of ISO 14064-3.
12）GHG Project Report/strong>
The GHG report shall indicate the intended purpose and target users of the report, and the format and content of the report shall be suitable for the needs of the target users. If the project proponent claims compliance with this standard in the GHG statement, the validation or verification document or GHG report provided by an independent third party in accordance with ISO 14064-3 shall be published. The report may include: the name of the project proponent; List of GHG declarations, including GHG emission reductions and removal increases in tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent; Whether the GHG statement has been validated or verified, the type of validation or verification and its credibility; A brief description of the GHG project, including size, location, duration and type of activities; The accumulation of GHG emissions and / or removals caused by GHG sources, sinks and reservoirs under the control of the project proponent within the relevant time period; The accumulation of GHG emissions and / or removals from GHG sources, sinks and reservoirs under the baseline scenario over the relevant time period; Description of baseline scenario; Persistence evaluation; Guidelines, procedures and good practice guidelines for calculating GHG emission reduction and removal increase of the project; The date of the report and the time period it covers; If there are other requirements, changes in the project or monitoring system and project plan, evaluation of compliance with the criteria, applicability of methodology, etc. can also be added.